ChemTeam lessons on oxidation-reduction. This Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory site allows you to explore the world of fundamental particles and forces and then to investigate the experimental evidence and techniques.
What few people realized — and the Curies were reluctant to admit — was the great harm this radioactive element could do. For periodic table T-shirts, neckties, etc.
Eric Scerri, author of The Periodic Table: The Periodic Table of Videos - This is not just another periodic table, but a huge resource that has expanded to include more than videos, mostly quite short.
At its simplest, you just click on an element, and watch a two-minute video that describes the element and its uses. There is also a larger series of " Molecular Videos " that describes different chemical substances and their uses — all designed to convey the fascination of Chemistry. Chinese periodic tables - Yes, there are such things! Comic book periodic table - if both comics and chemistry are important in your life, you'll love this!
The Photographic Periodic Table of the Elements - the home page features photographs of or related to the elements, but it includes "many thousands of pages of text, stories, pictures, and data" by Theodore Gray. It's Elemental - this is not so much a periodic table as a series of links to excellent and interesting articles focussing on the history and uses of each element, written by authors having special expertise or interest in the element. Periodic Table mnemonic song -.
Periodic Table of Poetry "Chemistry and poetry together as never before. If gems like this fascinate you, have a look at this site, which is all about the origins of the element names, not just in English, but in 97 different languages. Periodic Table of Haiku - for those who find elements lyrical. WebElements Sheffield, UK The elements in this online periodic table are linked to an extensive variety of chemical and physical data as well as background, crystallographic, nuclear, electronic, biological and geological information.
You can ever hear how the Brits prounounce the name of the element! How to avoid telling lies with numbers. Provides an understandable, in-depth explanation with many examples. Lower, Chem1 Virtual Textbook. It uses examples of nanotechnology and advanced materials to explore science and engineering concepts mainly at the college level, but there are also sections for K There are links to movies, lab experiments, kits including Lego nanobricks and instructional materials.
Ionic and ion-derived solids - a detailed look at alkali halide energetics and structures, and extended structures. Introduction to crystals - how the external forms of crystals relate to their internal structures.
Cover the empirical laws of crystals, lattices and unit cells, Miller indices, and factors affecting growth habits. Cubic crystal lattices and close packing - the origins of long-range order in solids. Face-centered and body-centered structures. Exploring Materials Engineering - links to a variety of sites relating to materials and polymer science. BuckyBalls Buckminsterfullerenes, those soccer-ball-like carbon structures.
This Nanotechnology Now site has a good overview of nanotubes and Buckyballs and many links. The outstanding site Macrogalleria covers the structures and properties of polymers in an uncommonly engaging way.
Lower, Simon Fraser University. Energy, enthalpy, and the First Law - a nice set of tutorials from Purdue U. The biggest, most powerful, most general idea in all of science. A lively, non-mathematical exposition of the way that entropy and activation energy battle it out in the world as we know it. By Frank Lambert of Occidental College. An alternative version , directed to non-science students and adults, is also available.
See also Lambert's non-technical description of how activation energies modify the application of the Second Law. See also Shakespeare and Thermodynamics: Dam the Second Law , and Entropy is Simple If We Avoid the Briar Patches! Explains how the development and evolution of life is consistent with the principle that the entropy of the world never decreases. All praise Lord Kelvin! A spoof cult site for the thermodynamically inclined. Units and dimensions for chemistry - includes charts showing the ranges of the scales such as length, mass, temperature, etc.
Online unit conversions - Here are several useful ones: Units, measures and conversions information can be found at a number of sources: How do I solve it? Just ask Antoine - If your instructor doesn't have the answer, try here! Ask a Scientist - an online community for science, math and computer science teachers and students.
The Chemistry Cluster is a Yahoo group where you can ask or answer! Chemical Forums for students of Chemistry - a place where you can post questions and answers. There are separate forums for high school chemistry, college general chemistry, organic, analytical, physical nuclear and inorganic chemistry, and chemical biology, as well as others of more general interest. Registration is required, but it is free.
ChemiCool forums is another site on which you can post questions and answers relting to General Chemisry and biochemistry as well as organic, theoretical and computational chemistry. Cramster is another board for "chemistry help" with practice exams, textbook excerpts, and user-posted questions. Chemistry tutors for hire - You can use this WyzAnt site to search for local tutors, review profiles and qualifications, run background checks, and arrange for in-home lessons.
Chemistry of Cleaning - a nice overview of the nature of "dirt" and the agents used to get rid of it. UK page How do detergents work? Chemistry behind cleaning contains many useful links to other sites.
Stain removal guide - How to remove just about every kind of stain you can think of. Links to topics from bread to pickles help enhance understanding ot the science behind food and cooking. What's in a modern laundry detergent? Surfactants, builders, flllers, brightening agents to attract consumer dollars. Food Science Videos - good collection of videos.
More Food Chemistry sites: Gas pressure in a can of soda. The Chemistry of Egg Whites - an unusually well-done treatment of this topic. Structure of ice cream - all about the chemistry and physics of your favorite treat from the Dairy Science Faculty of the Unversity of Guelph Ontario, Canada. Stain removal guide - here is something to make your parents regard you as a Chemistry expert!
What's in skunk spray, and what can you do about it? How to keep jewelry from discoloring your skin. Why does eating asparagus make your pee smell funny? For information on other disgusting bodily fluids and odors, check out the Grossology site. Why is water blue? It's all about O-H bond stretching! The Causes of Color section has pages on Why is water blue? Why do leaves become brightly colored in the autumn? Who says that science can't help us appreciate the beauties of nature?
Why is the sky blue? An introduction to Rayleigh scattering. Science Knowledge Quiz - "Test your knowledge of science facts and applications of scientific principles by taking our short question quiz. Then see how you did in comparison with a nationally representative group of 3, randomly selected U. Foundations and applications - At first glance, this site appears to be just an A-Z index to a series of short definitions of the many topics it covers, but clicking on the name of the topic itself brings up a fairly detailed but anonymously composed description or exposition of the subject.
A series of handounts in Web page format describing how to approach General Chemistry problems. The original site is long gone, but this archived advice is still worth knowing! The Alchemy Web Site - A very comprehensive source. This series appeared in Slate in mid What is chemistry good for?
A nice rejoinder to those who accuse chemistry of polluting the world. Elemental discoveries A weekly 'zine featuring chemistry topics and reviews. How Bread Works - You probably eat bread every day.
You may even know how to make your own bread. But have you ever thought about bread as a technology? Human Thermodynamics - this rather far-out site apparently seeks to relate chemical affinity to human interactions. Measure Converter - conversion factors between SI and cgs units of all kinds, organized both by category and name of unit. Mineral Gallery - A good minerology site with information and excellent photos of a large number of minerals organized both by name and by classification.
All about pseudoscience, bad science, and pathological science. How to tell the difference from science. If you are interested in science, you ought to know something about the nonsense that is being flogged in the name of science. The molecular basis of indicator color changes. A very well-done site with interesting graphics and lots of cross-links.
Very readable and interesting, set at the "Scientific American" level and suitable for high school and introductory college courses. Boiling water without bubbles - an interesting article about the nanoparticles and the Leidenfrost effect. John Oliver on "scientific studies" and their reporting - A Last Week Tonight YouTube video on how and why media outlets so often report untrue or incomplete information as science. General Chemistry Jeopardy games - a collection from U.
Chemistry Trivia Quizzes - this site provides access to a variety of quizzes from different sources. Seiler, an Illinois high school teacher. Chemistry Joke-a-rama - guaranteed by the American Chemical Society to make you laugh. Molecules with silly or unusual or suggestive names - an amusing and informative site by Paul May of Bristol U UK that will likely have special appeal to teen males of all ages.
Science humor WebRing - some of it is pretty corny. The story of Schroedinger's cat an epic poem. It can kill you! All about this nefarious chemical in our environment. Games - this U Pittsburgh site covers general, organic, analytical and biochemistry. Show the world that chemistry matters to you! Here are a few U. Cotton Expressions offers some nice chemistry, biology and geology T-shirts. Science On T-Shirts has a wide selection of Chemistry-related slogans , some pretty corny.
Made-with-molecules This scientist-turned artist with a fascination for molecules offers molecule-themed silver jewelry, keychains, baby gifts, holiday cards— and, for the guys, testosterone boxer shorts. The Atomic Dashboard - is an interactive chemistry resource and learning tool developed for the Mac by Bitwixt Software Systems.
Used by educators, students, scientists, and the simply curious. With its 3D Molecule Library, and its 3D models of atomic orbitals, molecules, compounds, gases, and crystals, The Atomic Dashboard helps you explore the relationships between the behavior of atoms and molecules and their 3D structure.
Intelli Balancer - this downloadable, Windows-only program will balance almost any chemical equation for you. The Atomic Mac is a shareware periodic table-oriented database including isotopic and nuclear data on the elements. Also includes a molecular weight calculator. Atom-in-a-box is a Macintosh shareware application that displays atomic orbitals in real-time.
Linux4Chemistry page lists a number of Chemistry applications, including open source, freeware and shareware. This set of lessons that provide guided, interactive instruction in General Chemistry at the college and advanced high school levels. These materials are suitable for home study or as a supplement to a formal course. All lessons start at a very elementary level, and many of them go somewhat beyond the content of the standard first-year course, making them useful to students enrolled in analytical chemistry, biochemistry, and environmental chemistry courses.
Symyx Draw is a free Windows-only application that you can use it to draw chemical structures and export them for viewing as 3D models. EasyChem is a free multi-platform GPL program that draws publication-quality structures. It can easily handle small and large molecules, loads multiple molecules, can move and rotate them independently, or displays a molecular dynamics trajectory.
Sources of free molecular modeling software are listed at the MathMol site -. Trinity software offers student discounts on all its products which include a number of titles in General Chemistry. MoleCalc is a free molecular weight calculator Windows-only utility by Davd Defoort.
You type in the formula, and it returns themolecular weight. Free Molecular weight calculators by Matthew Monroe Windows only. Online Molecular Weight Calculator from Lenntech. Digital Science includes built-in periodic table reference - Structural. CurTiPot acid-base software - All-in-one freeware for pH and acid-base equilibrium calculations and for simulation and analysis of Potentiometric Titration Curves. Model ChemLab is a real-time 2-D simulation of a chemistry lab in which the user interacts with animated lab equipment in a large number of experiment modules see list.
Macintosh and Windows; Free demo available by download. Enthalpy is abbreviated as H in the Gibbs free energy equation: Enthalpy can help an observer discern whether a reaction is endothermic or exothermic based on the enthalpy having a positive or negative value. Read on to find out more about enthalpy! It is a spontaneous reaction that occurs naturally. Entropy measures the disorder of a system.
Read this lesson to learn more about entropy! Mass spectrometry is used to experimentally determine the molecular weight of a sample by ionizing a molecule and passing it through electrical and magnetic fields.
The observer would then note how the ionized compound responds, which correlates with the molecular weight in a quantifiable way.
Read on to learn more about the intricate process of mass spectrometry! Hess's law is much like solving a puzzle using the change in entropy of a reaction. Hess's law requires a balanced equation with proper coefficients. Read on for more advice on implementing Hess's law! The Born-Haber cycle is a series of chemical processes that are used to calculate the lattice energy of ionic solids.
The Born-Haber cycle can be thought of as a special case of Hess's law. Read on for a definition of lattice energy as well as examples of how the Born-Haber cycle is used to calculate lattice energy. This page identifies different types of bonds, including covalent, polar covalent, ionic, and hydrogen. It explains how to draw compound structures by counting electrons and placing bonds accordingly.
The Octet and Duet rules are also explained here. This page details how electrons are arranged in an atom, including information about the orbitals s, p, d, and f and how to easily tell which orbital an electron is in.
Electron delocalization can be really confusing! In order to understand this concept, one must learn about resonance, bonding, and aromaticity. Read on for more information about electron delocalization! The Aufbau principle describes how electrons fill energy levels in an atom. In order to write the electron configuration of an atom, one must know how the subshells fill. Using the diagonal rule will certainly help with this process. Read on for more information about the Aufbau principle.
Hybridization occurs when two atomic orbitals combine to form one hybrid orbital. One of the more common types of hybridization is sp 3 hybridization, which is described in detail in this lesson.
Read on for more detailed information on the intricacies of electron orbitals. Electrolysis occurs in electrolytic cells when an electrical current causes a nonspontaneous oxidation-reduction reaction. This lesson describes how electrolysis is used, including extracting pure metals from the Earth's crust. Read on for more information on the process of electrolysis!
Voltaic cells use chemical energy to do electrical work. A redox reaction occurs, and the electrons are forced through an electrical circuit. Read on to find out the specifics on how voltaic cells power electrical processes! The study of nuclear reactions is called radiation chemistry. A nuclear reaction involves the nucleus of an atom. These types of processes were first discovered by Marie Curie in the late s.
Read on for more details about radiation chemistry! Introduces carbon structures and interactions between molecules. Basic vocabulary and ideas are introduced concerning alcohols and hydrocarbons. Combustion of a hydrocarbon is also discussed briefly. Alkanes and alkenes are both hydrocarbons that follow the standard nomenclature procedures. Learn whether alkanes and alkenes are saturated or unsaturated, which is more reactive, and how to name a compound by looking at its structure in this lesson.
When aromatic compounds undergo reactions with electrophiles, a substitution reaction occurs. Read on for an in-depth description of how these reactions occur! Halogenoalkanes are exciting because, compared to alkanes, they are very highly reactive when paired with nucleophiles or bases. Halogenoalkanes are also SP3 hybridized.
Read this lesson to find out more information on halogenoalkanes! This lesson also covers aldol condensation as well as the Robinson annulation reaction. Read on for more details about these chemical processes.
An elimination reaction occurs when a starting product breaks down into two new products that contain all the atoms of the original reactant. There are two types: Read this lesson for more information about elimination reactions. Nucleophilic substitution reactions occur when a nucleophile interacts with an electrophile.
Read this lesson for a step by step explanation of what happens during a nucleophilic substitution reaction. This lesson also covers nucleophilic substitution including the SN1 and SN2 mechanisms. Effects on kinetic rate, alkyl group, and more are discussed in this lesson. Because many students cannot and do not draw organic structures correctly, one of our most prominent chemistry tutors took the time to explain how to draw cyclohexane rings in great detail. She even shows more than one way to get a perfect drawing of this ring.
Read the lesson to find out how to draw these rings correctly! Stereoisomers are a category of isomers. Learn about the different categories of isomers in this lesson, and how you will study stereoisomers in chemistry and biochemistry.
Content in this section of Wyzant Lessons has been curated by tutors, as well as by Chemtutor. Wilner is happiest when he is explaining things in science pontificating , so it is natural that he has been a science teacher in high school and a teacher of chemistry at Georgia Perimeter College. Still need help after using our chemistry resources? Use our service to find a chemistry tutor. Chemistry Help and Problems In our chemistry help section, you'll find a broad range of topics from very basic chemistry all the way through some more advanced organic chemistry topics.
Heuristics Before you get into the other topics, learning HOW to learn chemistry is a great place to start, and this section will help. Numbers and Math Operations What math do you need know for chemistry? This section illuminates those specific operations. Atomic Structure Need to understand how atoms are structured? The Periodic Table Almost everyone has heard of the periodic table, but do you know how to read it?
Elements Take a deep dive on every element on the periodic table.
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