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The 3 Basic Types of Descriptive Research Methods

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❶A survey that studies a portion of the population is known as a sample survey. A sample survey of intangibles Public opinion pools are examples of studies measuring intangible constructs.

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A cross sectional study would compare quantitative reasoning of a sample of students from grades 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. The cross sectional survey is the method of choice if you want to gather the data at one point in time. Six basic steps are involved in survey research 1.

Construct a complete list of all individuals in the population. Select a representative sample 4. Field test the instrument. Personal interview — flexible, questions can be repeated, or their meaning explained, personal contact increases the likelihood that the individual will respond, the main disadvantage is the expense, and a possibility of interviewer bias. Questionnaires have a low return rate, furthermore non-response rate may not be randomly distributed in the population making generalizability questionable.

Email surveys are becoming more popular. They have prompter returns and have lower item non-response and more complete answers to open ended questions. Plan for a prior email notification and you are likely to have more response, try to address each individual person instead of using a mailing list. Internet surveys the advantage of these is a similar format for all respondents, and are easier for the respondent to navigate — e. High response rate is one big advantage and the ease in reaching the participants.

The researcher can provide assistance. The main disadvantage is the researcher is restricted in terms of where and when the questionnaire can be administered. Please respond to these questions and bring your responses to class on July Survey or Descriptive research questions. Suggest a research question that can best be answered by means of a survey. Write one open-ended and one closed-end items, and one likert scale items that would provide data relevant to the question.

What data gathering technique would you use for each of the following surveys? Turn to page of the 8th edition text. There is a sample questionnaireitems in a survey of high school teachers. These sections are tools to measure tangible or intangible variables.

Distinguish the intangible and the intangible variables. Comment on the challenges. Write one open-ended and one closed-end question. On the basis of the time of data collection, classify each of the following surveys: Terman's study of adults who were intellectually gifted as children. A comparison of math achievement in public middle schools in the United States in , , and A follow-up of the graduates of the Indiana University School of Business.

A survey of reading achievement at different grade levels in a school system in Before you read the notes below please respond to the following question: Personal interview — flexible, questions can be repeated, or their meaning explained, personal contact increases the likelihood that the individual will respond, the main disadvantage is the expense, and a possibility of interviewer bias 2. There is a sample questionnaireitems in a survey of high school teachers a Examine the Demographics, Checklist, Likert Scale, and Free response sections of the questionnaire.

Terman's study of adults who were intellectually gifted as children 2. Case studies often lead to testable hypotheses and allow us to study rare phenomena. Case studies should not be used to determine cause and effect, and they have limited use for making accurate predictions.

There are two serious problems with case studies — expectancy effects and atypical individuals. Describing atypical individuals may lead to poor generalizations and detract from external validity. In survey method research, participants answer questions administered through interviews or questionnaires. After participants answer the questions, researchers describe the responses given. In order for the survey to be both reliable and valid it is important that the questions are constructed properly.

Questions should be written so they are clear and easy to comprehend. Another consideration when designing questions is whether to include open-ended, closed-ended, partially open-ended, or rating-scale questions for a detailed discussion refer to Jackson, Advantages and disadvantages can be found with each type:.

Open-ended questions allow for a greater variety of responses from participants but are difficult to analyze statistically because the data must be coded or reduced in some manner. Closed-ended questions are easy to analyze statistically, but they seriously limit the responses that participants can give. In addition to the methods listed above some individuals also include qualitative as a distinct method and archival methods when discussing descriptive research methods.

It is important to emphasize that descriptive research methods can only describe a set of observations or the data collected. It cannot draw conclusions from that data about which way the relationship goes — Does A cause B, or does B cause A? Nothing could be further from the truth. Research Methods and Statistics: A Critical Thinking Approach 3rd edition.

Jamie has written seven books and co-authored one. Find help or get online counseling now. By Jamie Hale, M. Observational Method With the observational method sometimes referred to as field observation animal and human behavior is closely observed.

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MEANING OF THE TERM- DESCRIPTIVE SURVEY RESEARCH METHOD NEERU SALARIA INTRODUCTION According to Best and Kahn (), “The term descriptive research has often been used incorrectly to describe three types of investigation that are different. Perhaps their superficial similarities have obscured their difference.

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Descriptive research methods are pretty much as they sound -- they describe situations. They do not make accurate predictions, and they do not determine cause and effect. There are three main types of descriptive methods: observational methods, case-study methods and survey methods.

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Descriptive Research Design: Definition, Examples & Types. What Is Survey Research? - Definition, Methods & Types; Descriptive Research Design: Definition, Examples & Types Related Study. Survey Method. This module discusses the purpose and use of surveys as a descriptive research method, as well as provides an introduction to the survey process. Learning Objectives: Describe the purpose and use of surveys in descriptive research. Describe basic survey designs.

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Descriptive research is “aimed at casting light on current issues or problems through a process of data collection that enables them to describe the situation more completely than was possible without employing this method.”. Most often, organizations will use it as a method to reveal and measure the strength of a target group’s opinion, attitude, or behaviour with regards to a given subject. But another common use of descriptive research would be the surveying of demographical traits in a certain group (age, income, marital status, gender, etc.).