If these problems can be resolved then we may indeed have a hypothesis. Hypotheses are central to progress in research. The point has been made that it is all too easy when conducting research to collect "interesting data" as opposed to "important data". Data and questions which enable researchers to test explicit hypotheses are important.
The rest are merely interesting. There is a second advantage of stating hypotheses, namely that implicit notions or explanations for events become explicit and this often leads to modifications of these explanations, even before data is collected. On occasion a given hypotheses may be too broad to be tested.
However, other testable hypotheses may be deduced from it. A problem really cannot be solved unless it is reduced to hypothesis form, because a problem is a question, usually of a broad nature, and is not directly testable. Decision on type of study Marketing research can be carried out on one of three levels: The chief purpose of exploratory research is to reach a better understanding of the research problem.
This includes helping to identify the variables which should be measured within the study. When there is little understanding of the topic it is impossible to formulate hypotheses without some exploratory studies.
For example, crop residues such a straw are high in lignin a wood-like substance and low in nutrients. This makes them a poor animal feed since the lignin acts against digestibility and the low nutrient content means poor food value. However, if treated in a strong alkali, plus a little heat, the lignin breaks down and the nutrient content increases. A company was established to exploit this technology and did so successfully for 4 seasons.
After this period sales began to slow down. Three other manufacturers had entered the market by this time. The company, Animal Feed Systems, did not know whether the whole industry had slowed down or if only their product was suffering. Nor did they know if the problem was temporary in that perhaps the market comprised of "early adopters" had been saturated but it was only a matter of time before other farmers began to buy their systems when they saw how well they worked.
It was also possible that if a problem did exist it could lie in any one of a number of areas: This is a good example of a situation where insufficient knowledge prevented the development of clear objectives, since the problem could not be articulated with any precision and therefore research of an exploratory nature was required.
Exploratory research is intended to help researchers formulate a problem in such a way that it can be researched and suggest testable hypotheses. Typically, a descriptive study specifies the number and size of market segments, the alternative ways in which products are currently distributed, listing and comparison of the attributes and features of competitive products, etc. This type of study can involve the description of the extent of association between variables.
For example, the researcher may observe that there is an association between the geographical location of consumers and their tendency to consume red meat. Note that the researcher is able to describe the relationship rather than explain it. Nonetheless if the relationship between the two is fairly stable this descriptive information may be sufficient for the purposes of prediction.
The researcher may, for example, be able to predict how fast the per capita consumption of red meat is likely to rise over a given time period. The principal difference between exploratory and descriptive research is that, in the case of the latter, specific research questions have been formulated before the research is undertaken.
Causal research deals with the "why" questions. That is, there are occasions when the researcher will want to know why a change in one variable brings about a change in another.
In summary then there are three distinct types of marketing research study: The purpose of each is summarised in figure 1. In some cases, a research programme will be of one kind or another, but in other instances these three typologies will represent phases within a single marketing research investigation.
Decision on data collection method The next set of decisions concerns the method s of data gathering to be employed.
The main methods of data collection are secondary data searches, observation, the survey, experimentation and consumer panels. Each of these topics is dealt with later on, so they are simply noted here.
Development of an analysis plan Those new to marketing research often intuitively believe that decisions about the techniques of analysis to be used can be left until after the data has been collected. Such an approach is ill-advised. Before interviews are conducted the following checklist should be applied: Or, if the calculations have to be performed manually, is there sufficient time to complete them and then to check them?
Therefore consideration has to be given to issues such as these before the fieldwork is undertaken. Data collection At this stage the researcher is ready to go into the field and collect data. The various issues relating to data collection constitute the main body of the text and therefore, are not dwelt upon here. Analysis of data The word 'analysis' has two component parts, the prefix 'ana' meaning 'above' and the Greek root 'lysis' meaning 'to break up or dissolve'.
Thus data analysis can be described as: These are the number of samples to be compared, whether the samples being compared are independent of one another and the level of data measurement.
Suppose a fruit juice processor wishes to test the acceptability of a new drink based on a novel combination of tropical fruit juices. There are several alternative research designs which might be employed, each involving different numbers of samples. Test A Comparing sales in a test market and the market share of the product it is targeted to replace. Samples are said to be dependent, or related, when the measurement taken from one sample in no way affects the measurement taken from another sample.
Take for example the outline of test B above. The measurement of the responses of fruit juice drinkers to the trial formulation in no way affects or influences the responses of the sample of non-fruit juice drinkers.
Therefore, the samples are independent of one another. Suppose however a sample were given two formulations of fruit juice to taste. That is, the same individuals are asked first to taste formulation X and then to taste formulation Y.
The researcher would have two sets of sample results, i. In this case, the samples would be considered dependent or related to one another. The third factor to be considered is the levels of measurement of the data being used. Data can be nominal, ordinal, interval or ratio scaled. Once the marketing researcher knows how many samples are to be compared, whether these samples are related or unrelated to one another and the level of measurement then the selection of the appropriate statistical test is easily made.
To illustrate the importance of understanding these connections consider the following simple, but common, question in marketing research. In many instances the age of respondents will be of interest. This question might be asked in either of the two following ways: All arithmetic operations Choosing format a would give rise to nominal or categorical data and format b would yield ratio scaled data.
These are at opposite ends of the hierarchy of levels of measurement. If by accident or design format a were chosen then the analyst would have only a very small set of statistical tests that could be applied and these are not very powerful in the sense that they are limited to showing association between variables and could not be used to establish cause-and-effect.
Format b , on the other hand, since it gives the analyst ratio data, allows all statistical tests to be used including the more powerful parametric tests whereby cause-and-effect can be established, where it exists.
Thus a simple change in the wording of a question can have a fundamental effect upon the nature of the data generated. Those who submit marketing research proposals involving quantitative data should demonstrate an awareness of the factors that determine the mode of analysis and a capability to undertake such analysis. Marketing researchers have to plan ahead for the analysis stage. It often happens that data processing begins whilst the data gathering is still underway. Whether the data is to be analysed manually or through the use of a computer program, data can be coded, cleaned i.
Another important aspect relates to logistics planning. This includes ensuring that once the task of preparing the data for analysis has begun there is a steady and uninterrupted flow of completed data forms or questionnaires back from the field interviewers to the data processors. Otherwise the whole exercise becomes increasingly inefficient.
A second logistical issue concerns any plan to build up a picture of the pattern of responses as the data comes flowing in. This may require careful planning of the sequencing of fieldwork.
For instance, suppose that research was being undertaken within a particular agricultural region with a view to establishing the size, number and type of milling enterprises which had established themselves in rural areas following market liberalisation. It may be that the West of the district under study mainly wheat is grown whilst in the East it is maize which is the major crop.
It would make sense to coordinate the fieldwork with data analysis so that the interim picture was of either wheat or maize milling since the two are likely to differ in terms of the type of mill used e. Drawing conclusions and making recommendations The final chapter of this textbook is devoted to the topic of report writing. However, it is perhaps worth noting that the end products of marketing research are conclusions and recommendations. With respect to the marketing planning function, marketing research helps to identify potential threats and opportunities, generates alternative courses of action, provides information to enable marketing managers to evaluate those alternatives and advises on the implementation of the alternatives.
Too often marketing research reports chiefly comprise a lengthy series of tables of statistics accompanied by a few brief comments which verbally describe what is already self-evident from the tables.
So, marketing research helps to solve the marketing problems quickly, correctly and systematically. Marketing research collects full information about consumers.
It finds out the needs and expectations of the consumers. So the company produces the goods according to the needs and expectations of the consumers. Marketing research helps the company to make its production and marketing policies. It helps the company to introduce new products in the market. It helps to identify new-markets.
Marketing research also collects full information about the competitors. The company uses this information to fight competition. It also helps the marketing manager to take decisions. Marketing research is a special branch and soul of 'Marketing Management'. It is of recent origin and widely used by manufacturers, exporters, distributors and service organisations.
There are almost as many different advertising strategies are there are products to advertise, and each company follows its own unique strategy plans. However, all forms of advertising strategy follow a few basic principles. Before an advertising strategy can begin in earnest, the company must define the qualities of the product or service, according to U. That means stating what purpose the product fulfills, what features it includes and what advantages it offers over other products intended for the same purpose.
These qualities will form the core of the advertising's branding, helping to define the message of the strategy and the features the company wishes to emphasize in its ads. With the product now defined, the question becomes who will want to purchase it.
It also means defining how much of the market may be open to purchasing that product and what percentage of the market is currently occupied by rival products.
It may also try to pin down the current economic climate in order to understand potential sales. For example, selling a luxury product such as a speedboat may be more difficult in times of economic downturn.
Advertising and marketing are concepts that many people consider to describe the same thing, selling a product or service to the marketplace. However, they are distinct concepts and understanding the difference is important to ensure you give due.
After a campaign is conducted, advertising research will measure the success of the advertising by trying to understand the amount of impact it had on the sales of the organization. This type of advertising research can help pinpoint the success of the advertising platform.
Definition: Advertising Research A research conducted to improve the efficiency of an advertisement is known as advertising research. The research could be focused on one particular advertisement or could be conducted in general to know the impact of advertising on consumer behaviour. Advertising research is a systematic process of marketing research conducted to improve the efficiency of advertising.
Search advertising research and thousands of other words in English definition and synonym dictionary from Reverso. You can complete the definition of advertising research given by the English Definition dictionary with other English dictionaries: Wikipedia, Lexilogos, Oxford, Cambridge, Chambers Harrap, Wordreference, Collins Lexibase. • Advertising research is a specialized form of marketing research conducted to improve the efficiency of advertising. 3. Meaning• Advertising research is the systematic gathering and analysis of information to help develop or evaluate advertising strategies, .