Proponents of laboratory observation often suggest that due to more control in the laboratory, the results found when using laboratory observation are more meaningful than those obtained with naturalistic observation.
Laboratory observations are usually less time-consuming and cheaper than naturalistic observations. Of course, both naturalistic and laboratory observation are important in regard to the advancement of scientific knowledge.
Case study research involves an in-depth study of an individual or group of indviduals. Case studies often lead to testable hypotheses and allow us to study rare phenomena. Case studies should not be used to determine cause and effect, and they have limited use for making accurate predictions. There are two serious problems with case studies — expectancy effects and atypical individuals. Describing atypical individuals may lead to poor generalizations and detract from external validity.
In survey method research, participants answer questions administered through interviews or questionnaires. After participants answer the questions, researchers describe the responses given. In order for the survey to be both reliable and valid it is important that the questions are constructed properly.
Questions should be written so they are clear and easy to comprehend. Another consideration when designing questions is whether to include open-ended, closed-ended, partially open-ended, or rating-scale questions for a detailed discussion refer to Jackson, Advantages and disadvantages can be found with each type:.
These studies are often referred to as observational research. Descriptive studies can last for a short period of time, such as a cross-sectional study. This type of study observes people in one interaction in a group setting. These studies can also be long-term, such as a longitudinal study. Longitudinal studies often follow individuals who are undergoing fitness and health treatment to determine the effectiveness.
Because of their focus on relationships, descriptive studies focus on answering the "what" rather than the "how" or "why," as other types of studies focus on revealing. As an example, market researchers use passive and active observational research and ethnography to understand the behavior of consumers in a certain area. Ethnographers spend time interacting with research participants and gleaning data on lifestyle, values, culture influence and consumer purchases.
Passive observation involves watching what customers purchase where researchers observe how customers interact with a product in active observation before asking questions. Observational research involves the use of sampling to reach a research conclusion. Survey research is one of the most commonly used descriptive research methods in a social sciences research study. Researchers randomly selects respondents from a population to answer a standardized questionnaire or conduct a face-to-face interview or telephone interview to collect data to assess people's behavior, beliefs and attitudes.
In these types of descriptive research methods, positives can include cost effective methods, easy administration and the ability to sample a wide range of people. On the negative side, face-to-face surveys can have issues with ambiguity in survey responses and survey participants being unwilling or too uncomfortable to give accurate or honest answers to the questions.
This type of descriptive research study as a method uses existing data or records to answer a research question. It involves content and qualitative analysis of research material. Archived data like the U.
Descriptive research methods are pretty much as they sound -- they describe situations. They do not make accurate predictions, and they do not determine cause and effect. There are three main types of descriptive methods: observational methods, case-study methods and survey methods.
Video: Descriptive Research Design: Definition, Examples & Types This lesson explores the different ways that a researcher can understand individuals or groups of people, both in terms of psychological research as well as general research in other fields.
Descriptive research is commonly used in social sciences to study characteristics or phenomenons. Also known as statistical research, researchers look into the frequency, average or other qualitative methods to understand a subject being studied. Descriptive-analysisThis method determines or describes the nature of an object by separating it into its parts. Its purpose is to discover the nature of things. The researcher should determine the composition, structure, sub-structure that occurs as units with the larger structure.
Descriptive research describes a situation while inferential (or experimental) research attempts to explain or forecast. > There are three main types of descriptive methods: * observational methods, * case-study methods and * survey methods. The Slideshare presentation below, Descriptive Research Methodologies, recaps the basics types of descriptive methods, but also includes a discussion of benefits and limitations. It primarily focuses on the use of descriptive research in educational settings, however the .