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Criminological Theory

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❶It is evident from our essay that both of the groups of theories have made a significant contribution into the development of the criminology as a discipline, because the biological theories represent the foundation for all the following theories which nowadays create the basics of the modern criminology. The biological theories primarily study the physical constitution and endocrinology.

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The most significant ideology which informs both classical and contemporary accounts of female criminality is a sexist ideology.

Such an ideology arises because the socially structured and culturally given nature of the assumptions informing these theories are not treated as subjects for analysis; rather common-sense understandings are taken for granted as a suitable platform from which to commence theorizing. Working within the natural attitude, adopting culturally given understandings of the nature of sexual differences and in particular the characteristics attributed to women, the theorists concerned provide merely a scientific gloss for common-sense understandings.

Biological determinist accounts may take two forms, although they are rarely mutually exclusive. Firstly women who have committed offences are perceived to have been motivated by fundamental biological bodily processes. For example, menstruation or the menopause, by affecting the hormonal balance in the body, are taken to be precipitating factors leading some women to commit criminal acts. In such cases action is seen to be directly related to, or even directly produced by, hormonal or biological imbalance.

Secondly, and more significantly, the female biology is perceived to determine the temperament, intelligence, ability and aggression of women. As a consequence of biological factors assuming such a key status in studies of female criminality it has followed that female offenders have been treated as a homogeneous group. Such factors as class, status, power, age, culture and so on are not considered as pertinent to an understanding of female criminality even though these variables are now accepted as relevant to the study of male criminality.

The latter perspective which treats female offenders as pathological is prevalent in both classical and contemporary criminological theories, one consequence of this being the continuing implementation of policy decisions predicated upon an understanding that criminal activity by women is a product of pathology located within the individual rather than an exemplification of meaningful action. This theme of the biological basis of female criminality which has become so entrenched in official and academic explanations was first fully formulated by Lombroso in his work entitled The Female Offender published in It is of course true that Lombroso employed biological factors to account for male criminality but with few exceptions this school of thought has been repudiated.

As Shoham maintains, Today. In analysing the differences between male and female delinquency they state, Differences between the sexes in hereditary predisposition to crime could be explained by sex-linked genes. Furthermore the female mode of personality, more timid, more lacking in enterprise, may guard her against delinquency. Interestingly, Lombroso maintains that one sure sign of criminality in women is the lack of a maternal instinct.

In response to this question they maintain, Delinquents of both sexes tend to be larger than controls, and overgrown by population standards. Markedly masculine traits in girl delinquents have been commented on by psychoanalytic observers.

Crime and delinquency can thereby be treated as an individual, not social, phenomenon. Criminological theorizing thereby becomes a means of providing new technologies for control or, failing that, a means of legitimating current policies which become justified as forms of treatment rather than punishment.

Moreover, while such theorizing is not concerned to provide the subjects of its study with the means to change their social situation and status it does provide a damaging anti-intellectual diet for its consumers which in fact serves to mystify the social phenomenon under research.

They also have less opportunity to commit crime. Because they are closely supervised than males first by parents and later by husband.

Patriachal idealogy promises women happiness and fulfilment from family life. Nevertheless her study does provide strong support for the view that criminal behaviour becomes likely when societies mechanism of social control break down. Other sociologists have examined social control mechanism to explain while women seem so much more likely to conform than men.

The implications of the ideological content of theories of female criminality. The implications of theorizing have frequently been overlooked by those sociologists or criminologists who perceive themselves merely to be observers or recorders of everyday life. Criminology had several factors that especially influenced its development.

These factors provide a lot of back up information for a better understanding of criminology and its possibilities. Criminology is a socially-legal interdisciplinary science and an integral part of legislation. As it has been already mentioned, the beginning of the existence of criminology as a separate science started in the middle of the XIX century.

Its start is strongly associated with the works of a famous criminologist Cesar Lombroso. Criminology as a science has a list of primary problems that it is to solve. The first one to mention is the analytical problem which lies in the detailed researched of the phenomenon of criminality, its general condition and the categorization of all the existing criminal manifestations.

Other problems include the prognosis of the potential criminal situation, the prevention of criminality and the determination of the causes and the consequences of crime.

One of the most important criminological issues of the new era is the designation of the crime determinants. So basically criminology has four main priorities to study: There have been many attempts to understand the true causes of crime. These attempts are especially revealed through the existing theories in criminology. Nevertheless, the biological and the psychological theories are the ones most spread and their contradiction constantly results in numerous arguments between the supporters of both of the theories.

In order to make any concrete conclusions on any of these theories it is necessary to analyze them and their contribution in criminology. The biological theories primarily study the physical constitution and endocrinology. They are a bright example of the theories that has not really got any practical support.

The misunderstanding of these theories has caused a stereotype that if a person is a criminal then he was born as a criminal and any steps taken in order to change or to influence them are useless. Biological theories are only a part and one the interpretation of criminality but not the only. In the present time there is no assertive evidence of the fact, that the physical constitution and other biological factors cause criminality.

Nevertheless, these theories have a right to exist and there was a lot of important information that was used in terms of the development of criminology as a science. The most vivid example of the biological determinism is the theory of Cesare Lombroso. Lombroso based his theory on the assumption that criminals have certain physiognomic features or abnormalities. Lombroso wanted to be able to detect future criminals in order to isolate them from the society.

This gave criminology a strong push to create new methods of dealing with criminals and prevent crimes. Lombroso implied that prisoners had common facial characteristics. Lombroso stated that men are more inclined to commit crimes due to the conservatism and the narrow-mindedness of their interests. According to Lombroso women have less social contacts and this is what predetermines their conservatism. This theory of female deviance seems to be very discriminating and not a present-day issue.

All the biological theories are based on the notion that biological markers foreordain criminal behavior. The core of all these theories is that genetic factors or any abnormalities which are inherited or acquired throughout the life, predispose individuals to the criminal behavior. Among the biological theories the XYY syndrome occupies a special place, as it analyzes why males are more often subjects to become criminals due to the presence if an extra Y chromosome.

As this syndrome is in the first place associated with the low IQ-level of such males which seems to be a much better explanation. IQ shortage causes the inability to adjust in the contemporary social world that requires constant activity and flexibility.

People facing these difficulties are left with no other choice that to turn to criminality. Also such diseases as Organic Brain Syndrome, ADD or hormonal changes according to the biological theories play a very important role in the inclination to any criminal activities.

Another famous biological theory is the theory of William Sheldon. He based his research and inferences on Kretschmer's constitutional personality. For instance, Sheldon pointed out three main body types which are to explain the potential bent to criminal activity: Endomorph is a type hat is fat and therefore is primarily concerned with consumption.

Mesomorph is defined through skinny intelligent introverts and ectomorph characterizes large dynamic people. Sheldon claimed that disproportionately mesomorphic people are more often subjects to criminal behavior than any other body type.

The main idea of the psychological theories is that potential criminal behavior is the result of stable psychological trait of a person. These personality characteristics are he ones to push people towards committing crimes and demonstrating deviant behavior. The psychological theories emphasize the meaning of extraversion, neuroticism, psychotisism and may others of the conduct of a man.

According to the psychological theories the disposition to crime is the result of inadequate socialization. They consider the social factor to be one of the most important ones in terms of inclination to deviance. Freud touched the problem of possible personality imbalance based on the functioning of Id, Ego and Superego resulting in the repression which can later proceed into criminal behavior. Erikson made an emphasis on the child development.

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o Peculiarities of criminology. o Biological theories in criminology. o Psychological theories in criminology. o Conclusion. 1. Introduction. Criminology is not an old science; nevertheless it is possible to say that .

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- Criminology theories are Conflict Theory which is based upon the view that the fundamental causes of crime are the social and economic forces operating within society. Critical Theory approaches to culture, and esp. to literature, that seeks to confront the social, historical, and ideological forces and structures that produce and constrain it.

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Essay on Criminology Theories. Criminology Theories Dealing with Characters from Boyz N the Hood Jamar Tyms Westwood College Criminology Ms. Peete Abstract This Paper will discuss what theories can explain the deviant behavior of the characters in the movie Boyz N the Hood. Database of FREE criminology essays - We have thousands of free essays across a wide range of subject areas. Sample criminology essays! Fair Use Policy; Help Centre; Notifications. Theories of Criminology | What Causes Crime? This paper focuses on the information about the crimes. Different theories about the criminology are described.

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